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Middle Bronze

Pottery types characteristic of this archeological period:




The Middle Bronze Age represents the traditional arrival of the Hebrew patriarchs to the land of Canaan. It was during this period that the biblical stories of Abraham and his wife Sara, the banishing of Hagar and Ishmael to the wilderness, and the attempted sacrifice of Isaac took place. There was also the account of Lot being saved by angels during the cataclysmic destruction of the “Five Cities of the Plain,” two of which were Sodom and Gomorrah. The epic story of Jacob, the father of the twelve tribes, and his brother Esau who sold his birthright, occurred in this archaeological period. Later appears the saga of Joseph and his brothers selling him into the service of the Egyptian nobleman Potiphar during the Hyksos Period in Egypt. (Gen 37:36). At this time, the pottery wheel led to new creative skills and the development of vessels of a carinated style. The four-spout oil lamp from the Early Bronze Age evolved into a single pinched spout for placement of a wick. More sophisticated bronze weaponry was cast, such as the duckbill axe, javelins, and sword dagger’s. Archaeologists excavated a new vessel called Tell el Yahudieh ware, first identified by Egyptologist Sir William Flinders Petrie. Hyksos pottery have been found both along the Nile Delta and in Canaan, signifying continuous active trade routes.