Paul’s metaphors of the “first piece of dough” and “the lump” have been woefully misunderstood by Christians because of their reference to Hebraic concepts. So too is the misunderstanding of the imagery of the olive tree. Then Paul’s repetition of “arrogant” rings in our ears. The sense of the original Greek means to exult or triumph over others, in this case the Jews. Paul is warning Gentile believers not to see themselves as superior over their Jewish brethren who have been seriously chastised by Paul with a warning that they may lose their special inheritance of the birthright that entitles them to participation in the Remnant. Gentiles also must listen to these words of caution.