We can see that Paul is speaking to Jews in Romans 9-11, ”my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites.” In all of chapters 9-11 there are only nine verses that deal with Gentiles (Rom 11:13-21). So, are these Jews believers in Christ? Many have concluded they are not Christians, so Paul must be reprimanding them for their unbelief. If this is true, it promotes an anti-Semitic interpretation of Paul’s words. I have come to a different conclusion.